The Physical Abilities and Mobility Scale (PAMS) is an assessment instrument that was developed by Kennedy Krieger Institute (USA) to quantify gross motor functioning following Acquired or Traumatic Brain Injury (ABI/TBI) during inpatient rehabilitation in children as young as 2 years of age through young adulthood.
PAMS has adequate reliability and validity and is sensitive to change in children who are admitted to inpatient rehabilitation with following ABI.
Utilization of the PAMS has now been expanded into the acute care environment as well.
PAMS was developed for serial administration to track recovery and assess outcome during inpatient rehabilitation.
- Physical Therapists
- Assess gross motor functioning at admission to assist with treatment planning/goal setting
- Track recovery over inpatient rehabilitation
- Assess gross motor functioning at discharge
How The Tool/Program is Used
PAMS includes 20 items measuring a range of gross motor functions, positioning and orthotic tolerance. PAMS administration time is between 20 and 30 minutes. Items scores range from 1 to 5; the total score ranged from 20 (floor) to 100 (ceiling). PAMS items are rated based on behavioral observation and performance on specific tasks.
- Improves understanding of the gross motor profile of children with brain injury, at all levels of functioning, throughout inpatient rehabilitation to assist in initial goal setting
- Allows for systematic, detailed tracking of gross motor recovery during inpatient rehabilitation by comparing each child to that child’s own functioning earlier in admission to inform ongoing treatment planning and evaluate interventions on the basis of early trajectory of recovery
- Early scores predict later outcomes to allow for better prognostication and to inform discharge planning
- Promotes clarity and consistency in description of gross motor deficits which facilitate communication among team members, patients, and families and facilitate interdisciplinary team process
- Enhances program evaluation; used in conjunction with other benchmarks to ensure a facility’s brain injury population is making adequate progress during admission
- Trovato MK, Bradley E, Slomine BS et al. Physical Abilities and Mobility Scale: reliability and validity in children receiving inpatient rehabilitation for acquired brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013; 94(7):1335-41
- McLean HB, Slomine BS, Suskauer S et al. Early Head Control Ratings on the Physical Abilities and Mobility Scale (PAMS) Indicative of Potential for Alertness Progression in Children with Disorders of Consciousness (DOC).
- Oral abstract presentation at The First International Conference on Paediatric Acquired Brain Injury. September 2015, Liverpool UK
- McLean HB, Slomine BS, Nicholson R et al. Re-Emergence of Head Control on the Physical Abilities and Mobility Scale is Associated with Resolution of Disorder of Consciousness during Inpatient Rehabilitation in a Larger Sample of Children with Brain Injury. Poster presentation at The Second International Conference on Paediatric Acquired Brain Injury. September 2017. Rome, Italy
- McLean HB, Slomine BS, Suskauer S et al. Re-Emergence of Head Control is Associated with Resolution of Disorder of Consciousness during Inpatient Rehabilitation in Children with TBI. Poster presentation at the 11th World Congress on Brain Injury, The Hague, Netherlands, March 2016
- Young DK, Starace HE, Boddy HI, Connelly K, Lock, KJ, Hamilton, C. Evaluating functional change using the Physical Abilities and Mobility Scale in acute paediatric neurorehabilitation. International Journal of Therapy And Rehabilitation. 2020; Vol. 27, No. 12