Severe Behavior Disorders

Treatment of Severe Behavior Disorders: Individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, including autism , are at increased risk for engaging in problem behavior such as self-injury, aggression, and property destruction. When these behaviors are intense and frequent, they can...

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive hemoglobinopathy that affects red blood cells, causing them to adopt a sickle or crescent shaped formation when under duress. This disease is caused by a single mutation to the hemoglobin beta (HBB) gene. When people have one HBB gene mutation, they have...

Sickle Cell Disease Pain

Rest, over the counter medicine (such as ibuprofen and aspirin), and fluids are some of the ways that SCD patients can treat mild pain symptoms at home. However, those who experience persistent and severe bouts of pain should seek medical treatment. In addition, children with SCD are at increased...

Skeletal Disorders

Skeletal disorders include Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Osteoporosis and Limb Length discrepancy.

Sleep Disorders

Sleep disorders occur in typically developing individuals, and they are probably even more common in individuals with developmental disabilities.

Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome

Smith-Lemli-Optiz Syndrome (SLOS) is a genetic disorder that affects the development of children both before and after birth.


Spasticity is a condition characterized by an increase in muscle tone or muscle stiffness that may interfere with movement, speech, or cause discomfort or pain.

Speech Disorders

Speech, language and communication disorders are problems in communication and related areas such as oral motor function. Causes of can include hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, intellectual disabilities, drug abuse, physical impairments and vocal abuse or misuse.

Spina Bifida

Spina bifida results from the failure of the spine to close properly during the first month of pregnancy. In severe cases, the spinal cord protrudes through the back and may be covered by skin or a thin membrane.

Spinal Cord Injury and Paralysis

Spinal cord injury (SCI) occurs when a traumatic event results in damage to cells within the spinal cord or severs the nerve tracts that relay signals up and down the spinal cord. The most common types of SCI include contusion (bruising of the spinal cord) and compression (caused by pressure on the spinal cord).