Stewart H.

Stewart H. Mostofsky, MD's picture
Director, Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research
Phone: 443-923-9266
Kennedy Krieger Institute

707 N. Broadway
Baltimore, MD 21205
United States

Research Departments


Dr. Stewart Mostofsky is a research scientist and director of the Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research (CNIR) at Kennedy Krieger Institute. He is also a professor of neurology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.


Dr. Mostofsky received his medical degree in 1990 through the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute-Albany Medical College six-year program, where he won the Jack Spitalny Prize for exceptional achievement in pediatrics. He went on to an internship and residencies in pediatrics and pediatric neurology at the University of Minnesota. Dr. Mostofsky first came to Kennedy Krieger Institute in 1995 for a fellowship in the Department of Developmental Cognitive Neurology, and stayed on as a pediatric neurologist, with subspecialty training and experience in behavioral neurology as it applies to the study of childhood developmental disorders. Dr. Mostofsky is the director of Kennedy Krieger Institute's Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research (CNIR), which focuses on understanding the neurological basis of developmental disorders, including autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Dr. Mostofsky’s clinical practice focuses on serving children in the autism spectrum and he serves as the medical director of the Center for Autism and Related Disorders (CARD) at Kennedy Krieger Institute. He is a member of the American Academy of Neurology, the Child Neurology Society, the International Neuropsychological Society, the Society for Cognitive Neuroscience, the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology and the Organization for Human Brain Mapping.


In the Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research (CNIR), Dr. Mostofsky investigates the biological basis of developmental disorders using both structural and functional imaging techniques and experimental neurobehavioral paradigms, including motor, sensory/perceptual, and cognitive testing. These methods are used to improve our understanding of the neurologic basis of autism and ADHD, and to guide development of novel intervention strategies. This work has been supported by grants from the NIH (NINDS and NIMH) and the Autism Speaks Foundation.

Dr. Mostofsky’s research with children with autism is focused on careful examination of the motor function, as increased insight into the brain mechanisms underlying the disorder might be gained from careful consideration of the motor signs associated with autism. Dr. Mostofsky has made important contributions to identifying the common factors underlying motor impairments in autism and how anomalous patterns of motor learning in autism may contribute to the impaired social and communicative deficits that define the disorder. He is now leveraging these findings to develop novel game-based intervention strategies for children with autism.

Dr. Mostofsky is also working to pinpoint the neural systems affected in ADHD and to help identify mechanisms for effective therapeutic intervention. This investigative work has led to important insights into how impairments in response selection and control (of behavior ranging from basic motor execution to higher level cognition) contribute to the excessive impulsive, hyperactive, and off-task ("distractible") behavior. Guided by these findings, Dr. Mostofsky is now examining the efficacy of novel movement-based intervention strategies, including mindfulness practice.

Research Studies

  • Children, Ages 36-54 Months, With an Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Children, Ages 8-18, With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders
  • Children, Ages 8-12, With and Without Autism Spectrum Disorders

Related Links

Elsevier Fingerprint Engine Profile for Stewart Mostofsky

Google Scholar Profile

Research Publications

Vasa RA, Kreiser NL, Keefer A, Singh V, Mostofsky SH (2018). Relationships between autism spectrum disorder and intolerance of uncertainty. Autism Res. 11(4), 636-644.

Di Martino A, O'Connor D, Chen B, Alaerts K, Anderson JS, Assaf M, Balsters JH, Baxter L, Beggiato A, Bernaerts S, Blanken LM, Bookheimer SY, Braden BB, Byrge L, Castellanos FX, Dapretto M, Delorme R, Fair DA, Fishman I, Fitzgerald J, Gallagher L, Keehn RJ, Kennedy DP, Lainhart JE, Luna B, Mostofsky SH, Müller RA, Nebel MB, Nigg JT, O'Hearn K, Solomon M, Toro R, Vaidya CJ, Wenderoth N, White T, Craddock RC, Lord C, Leventhal B, Milham MP(2017). Enhancing studies of the connectome in autism using the autism brain imaging data exchange II. Sci Data. 4, 170010.

Wodka EL, Puts NA, Mahone EM, Edden RA, Tommerdahl M, Mostofsky SH (2016). The Role of Attention in Somatosensory Processing: A Multi-trait, Multi-method Analysis. J Autism Dev Disord. 46(10), 3232-41.

Stephens J, Salorio C, Denckla M, Mostofsky SSuskauer S (2016). Subtle Motor Findings During Recovery from Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Report. J Mot Behav. , 1-7.

Dye CD, Walenski M, Mostofsky SH, Ullman MT (2016). A verbal strength in children with Tourette syndrome? Evidence from a non-word repetition task. Brain Lang. 160, 61-70.

Goldberg MC, Allman MJ, Hagopian LP, Triggs MM, Frank-Crawford MA, Mostofsky SHDenckla MB, DeLeon IG (2016). Examining the reinforcing value of stimuli within social and non-social contexts in children with and without high-functioning autism. Autism. , .

Sharer EA, Mostofsky SH, Pascual-Leone A, Oberman LM (2016). Isolating Visual and Proprioceptive Components of Motor Sequence Learning in ASD. Autism Res. 9(5), 563-9.

Floris DL, Barber AD, Nebel MB, Martinelli M, Lai MC, Crocetti D, Baron-Cohen S, Suckling J, Pekar JJMostofsky SH (2016). Atypical lateralization of motor circuit functional connectivity in children with autism is associated with motor deficits. Mol Autism. 7, 35. 

Barber AD, Pekar JJMostofsky SH (2016). Reaction time-related activity reflecting periodic, task-specific cognitive control. Behav Brain Res. 296, 100-8.

Barber AD, Pekar JJMostofsky SH (2016). Reaction time-related activity reflecting periodic, task-specific cognitive control. Behav Brain Res. 296, 100-8.

Germain B, Eppinger MA, Mostofsky SH, DiCicco-Bloom E, Maria BL (2015). Recent Advances in Understanding and Managing Autism Spectrum Disorders. J Child Neurol. 30(14), 1887-920.

Sharer E, Crocetti D, Muschelli J, Barber AD, Nebel MB, Caffo BS, Pekar JJMostofsky SH(2015). Neural Correlates of Visuomotor Learning in Autism. J Child Neurol. 30(14), 1877-86.

Ranta ME, Chen M, Crocetti D, Prince JL, Subramaniam K, Fischl B, Kaufmann WE, Mostofsky SH (2014). Automated MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe. Hum Brain Mapp. 35(5), 2009-26. 

Nebel MB, Joel SE, Muschelli J, Barber AD, Caffo BS, Pekar JJMostofsky SH (2014). Disruption of functional organization within the primary motor cortex in children with autism. Hum Brain Mapp. 35(2), 567-80.

Barber AD, Caffo BS, Pekar JJMostofsky SH (2013). Effects of working memory demand on neural mechanisms of motor response selection and control. J Cogn Neurosci. 25(8), 1235-48. 

Shiels Rosch K, Dirlikov B, Mostofsky SH (2013). Increased intrasubject variability in boys with ADHD across tests of motor and cognitive control. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 41(3), 485-95.

Barber AD, Caffo BS, Pekar JJMostofsky SH (2013). Developmental changes in within- and between-network connectivity between late childhood and adulthood.Neuropsychologia. 51(1), 156-67. 

Wu SW, Gilbert DL, Shahana N, Huddleston DA, Mostofsky SH (2012). Transcranial magnetic stimulation measures in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatr Neurol. 47(3), 177-85.Edden RA, Crocetti D, Zhu H, Gilbert DL, Mostofsky SH (2012). Reduced GABA concentration in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 69(7), 750-3.

Izawa J, Pekny SE, Marko MK, Haswell CC, Shadmehr R, Mostofsky SH (2012). Motor learning relies on integrated sensory inputs in ADHD, but over-selectively on proprioception in autism spectrum conditions. Autism Res. 5(2), 124-36.

MacNeil LK, Mostofsky SH (2012). Specificity of dyspraxia in children with autism.Neuropsychology. 26(2), 165-71.

HD-200 Consortium (2012). The ADHD-200 Consortium: A Model to Advance the Translational Potential of Neuroimaging in Clinical Neuroscience. Front Syst Neurosci. 6, 62.

Barber AD, Srinivasan P, Joel SE, Caffo BS, Pekar JJMostofsky SH (2012). Motor "dexterity"?: Evidence that left hemisphere lateralization of motor circuit connectivity is associated with better motor performance in children. Cereb Cortex. 22(1), 51-9.

Mahone EM, Ranta ME, Crocetti D, O'Brien J, Kaufmann WE, Denckla MBMostofsky SH(2011). Comprehensive examination of frontal regions in boys and girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 17(6), 1047-57.

Mostofsky SHEwen JB (2011). Altered connectivity and action model formation in autism is autism. Neuroscientist. 17(4), 437-48.

Mahone EM, Crocetti D, Ranta ME, Gaddis A, Cataldo MSlifer KJDenckla MBMostofsky SH(2011). A preliminary neuroimaging study of preschool children with ADHD. Clin Neuropsychol. 25(6), 1009-28. 

Spinelli S, Joel S, Nelson TE, Vasa RAPekar JJMostofsky SH (2011). Different neural patterns are associated with trials preceding inhibitory errors in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 50(7), 705-715.e3.

Gilbert DL, Isaacs KM, Augusta M, Macneil LK, Mostofsky SH (2011). Motor cortex inhibition: a marker of ADHD behavior and motor development in children. Neurology. 76(7), 615-21. 

Macneil LK, Xavier P, Garvey MA, Gilbert DL, Ranta ME, Denckla MBMostofsky SH (2011). Quantifying excessive mirror overflow in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neurology. 76(7), 622-8.

Vasa RA, Pine DS, Thorn JM, Nelson TE, Spinelli S, Nelson E, Maheu FS, Ernst M, Bruck M, Mostofsky SH (2011). Enhanced right amygdala activity in adolescents during encoding of positively valenced pictures. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 1(1), 88-99.

Goldberg MC, Spinelli S, Joel S, Pekar JJDenckla MBMostofsky SH (2011). Children with high functioning autism show increased prefrontal and temporal cortex activity during error monitoring. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 1(1), 47-56.

Qiu A, Adler M, Crocetti D, Miller MI, Mostofsky SH (2010). Basal ganglia shapes predict social, communication, and motor dysfunctions in boys with autism spectrum disorder.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 49(6), 539-51, 551.e1-4.

Vaurio RG, Simmonds DJ, Mostofsky SH (2009). Increased intra-individual reaction time variability in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder across response inhibition tasks with different cognitive demands. Neuropsychologia. 47(12), 2389-96.

Mostofsky SH, Powell SK, Simmonds DJ, Goldberg MC, Caffo B, Pekar JJ (2009). Decreased connectivity and cerebellar activity in autism during motor task performance. Brain. 132(Pt 9), 2413-25.

Dowell LR, Mahone EMMostofsky SH (2009). Associations of postural knowledge and basic motor skill with dyspraxia in autism: implication for abnormalities in distributed connectivity and motor learning. Neuropsychology. 23(5), 563-70. 

Haswell CC, Izawa J, Dowell LR, Mostofsky SH, Shadmehr R (2009). Representation of internal models of action in the autistic brain. Nat Neurosci. 12(8), 970-2.

Wodka EL, Simmonds DJ, Mahone EMMostofsky SH (2009). Moderate variability in stimulus presentation improves motor response control. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 31(4), 483-8.

Wolosin SM, Richardson ME, Hennessey JG, Denckla MBMostofsky SH (2009). Abnormal cerebral cortex structure in children with ADHD. Hum Brain Mapp. 30(1), 175-84. 

Qiu A, Crocetti D, Adler M, Mahone EMDenckla MB, Miller MI, Mostofsky SH (2009). Basal ganglia volume and shape in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 166(1), 74-82. 

Gidley Larson JC, Mostofsky SH (2008). Evidence that the pattern of visuomotor sequence learning is altered in children with autism. Autism Res. 1(6), 341-53. 

Gidley Larson JC, Bastian AJ, Donchin O, Shadmehr R, Mostofsky SH (2008). Acquisition of internal models of motor tasks in children with autism. Brain. 131(Pt 11), 2894-903..

Suskauer SJ, Simmonds DJ, Caffo BS, Denckla MBPekar JJMostofsky SH (2008). fMRI of intrasubject variability in ADHD: anomalous premotor activity with prefrontal compensation. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 47(10), 1141-50.

Mostofsky SH, Simmonds DJ (2008). Response inhibition and response selection: two sides of the same coin. J Cogn Neurosci. 20(5), 751-61.

Kofman O, Larson JG, Mostofsky SH (2008). A novel task for examining strategic planning: evidence for impairment in children with ADHD. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 30(3), 261-71.

Suskauer SJ, Simmonds DJ, Fotedar S, Blankner JG, Pekar JJDenckla MBMostofsky SH(2008). Functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence for abnormalities in response selection in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: differences in activation associated with response inhibition but not habitual motor response. J Cogn Neurosci. 20(3), 478-93. 

Simmonds DJ, Pekar JJMostofsky SH (2008). Meta-analysis of Go/No-go tasks demonstrating that fMRI activation associated with response inhibition is task-dependent. Neuropsychologia. 46(1), 224-32.

Dziuk MA, Gidley Larson JC, Apostu A, Mahone EMDenckla MBMostofsky SH (2007). Dyspraxia in autism: association with motor, social, and communicative deficits. Dev Med Child Neurol. 49(10), 734-9.

Mostofsky SH, Burgess MP, Gidley Larson JC (2007). Increased motor cortex white matter volume predicts motor impairment in autism. Brain. 130(Pt 8), 2117-22. 

Simmonds DJ, Fotedar SG, Suskauer SJPekar JJDenckla MBMostofsky SH (2007). Functional brain correlates of response time variability in children. Neuropsychologia. 45(9), 2147-57.

Wodka ELMahone EM, Blankner JG, Larson JC, Fotedar S, Denckla MBMostofsky SH(2007). Evidence that response inhibition is a primary deficit in ADHD. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 29(4), 345-56.

Mahone EM, Powell SK, Loftis CW, Goldberg MCDenckla MBMostofsky SH (2006). Motor persistence and inhibition in autism and ADHD. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 12(5), 622-31. 

Jansiewicz EM, Goldberg MC, Newschaffer CJ, Denckla MBLanda RMostofsky SH (2006). Motor signs distinguish children with high functioning autism and Asperger's syndrome from controls. J Autism Dev Disord. 36(5), 613-21.

Mostofsky SH, Dubey P, Jerath VK, Jansiewicz EM, Goldberg MCDenckla MB (2006). Developmental dyspraxia is not limited to imitation in children with autism spectrum disorders. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 12(3), 314-26. 

Mostofsky SH, Rimrodt SL, Schafer JG, Boyce A, Goldberg MCPekar JJDenckla MB (2006). Atypical motor and sensory cortex activation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of simple sequential finger tapping. Biol Psychiatry. 59(1), 48-56. 

Radonovich KJ, Mostofsky SH (2004). Duration judgments in children with ADHD suggest deficient utilization of temporal information rather than general impairment in timing.Child Neuropsychol. 10(3), 162-72. 

Jansiewicz EM, Newschaffer CJ, Denckla MBMostofsky SH (2004). Impaired habituation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Cogn Behav Neurol. 17(1), 1-8.

Mostofsky SH, Bunoski R, Morton SM, Goldberg MCBastian AJ (2004). Children with autism adapt normally during a catching task requiring the cerebellum. Neurocase. 10(1), 60-4.