Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. Most cases are caused by a viral infection. Children who have encephalitis are usually quite ill and are typically hospitalized.

Children who are in the process of recovering from encephalitis may require acute rehabilitative services to ensure that they can get adequate nutrition and to help relearn skills.

Some children may have long-term complications from their encephalitis, including epilepsy, movement disorders (such as unsteady gait) and cognitive/academic problems. These children may benefit from long-term rehabilitative services (including physical therapy, occupational therapy and speech-language therapy). They may also benefit from being cared for by a neurologist or movement disorder specialist who uses medications to treat seizures and difficulties with coordination.