Brain malformations are conditions in which the brain has not formed properly during pregnancy.

These problems in brain structure are almost often (with some exceptions) associated with neurological and developmental problems. In general, the more severe the structural problems, the more severe the effects.

The problems resulting from brain malformations are variable and require careful assessments to detect or try to predict for the future (prognosticate). Some problems only develop over time and others may improve with time.

Examples, Subsets and Synonyms for Brain Malformations -- Brain Anomalies, Congenital Malformations of the Brain and Birth Defects:

The most common brain malformations include:

  • Agenesis of the corpus callosum
  • Holoprosencephaly
  • Various forms of septo-optic dysplasia
  • Lissencephaly
  • Other malformations of cerebral cortical development
  • Neuronal migration disorders
  • Intacranial cysts and lipomas
  • Encephaloceles
  • Congenital hydrocephalus
  • Various forms of Chiari malformation and Dandy Walker Syndrome and schizencephaly

Rarer forms include:

  • Hemimegalencephaly
  • Joubert's syndrome
  • Rhomboencephalosynapsis
  • Lhermitte-Duclos Syndrome (dysplastic cerebellar gangliocytoma)