Self-injurious behavior (SIB), displayed by individuals with autism and intellectual disabilities, involves the occurrence of behavior that results in physical injury to one's own body.
Common forms of SIB include, but are not limited to, head-hitting, head-banging and hand-biting. In the most severe cases, SIB can result in retinal detachment, blindness, broken bones, bleeding or death. SIB is displayed by 10 to 15 percent of individuals with autism and intellectual disabilities. These estimates are higher among individuals living in institutions and among those with greater cognitive impairments. SIB is also associated with certain genetic disorders, such as Lesch-Nyhan and Rett Syndromes.
Individuals may engage in SIB for a variety of reasons. In some cases, SIB may occur because it results in favorable outcomes, such as attention from caregivers or the termination of academic or instructional demands. SIB may also be biologically based. For example, some research has suggested that SIB may result in the release of chemicals in the brain that produce pleasurable effects. Although there is considerable evidence to support of all of these explanations, current thought indicates that SIB is a highly complex, heterogeneous phenomenon that is often attributable to a combination of factors.
Examples, Subsets and Synonyms for Behavioral Disorders:
- Aggression/Aggressive Behavior
- Self-injurious Behavior/Self-Harm
- Behavioral Feeding Disorders
- Association for Behavior Analysis
- American Psychological Association
- Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
- Parenting Toolbox
- National Head Start Association
- Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
- National Academy Press
- National Institute of Mental Health