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Cognitive Curriculum for Students with Traumatic Brain Injury: Visual Perceptual/Spatial Constructional -- SHNIC Educators Information
Sensory deficits are attributed to impaired vision related to a defect anywhere between the eye to the optic nerve to the primary visual cortex. Perceptual deficits, on the other hand, are attributed to deficits from the primary visual cortex, secondary visual cortex or the tertiary multimodal association cortex. Although it may be difficult to separate sensory from perceptual/spatial defects in some severely brain damaged patients, deficits in perception are often observed despite intact sensory ability. When a question of deficits in sensory and/or perceptual ability arise, a thorough ophthalmology evaluation should be requested and attempts made to correct sensory deficits as much as possible. The following objectives and goals were designed to address perceptual skills, such as making sense of and constructing visual information rather than sensory deficits.
Following brain damage, defects in identification of the formal characteristics of objects (visual perception) and defects in the localization of objects in space (visual spatial skill) have been observed. Patients with brain damage often show defective performance on one task and not the other. Neuroanatomically, there are two cortical visual association systems thought to be involved in this dichotomy. The inferior occipitotemporal system subserves object recognition and the occipitoparietal system subserves appreciation of spatial relations.
Visuoconstructional ability involves the ability to create an object through drawing or building from a model, picture, or visual image. This ability is partially dependent on visuoperceptual and spatial skills, as well as other factors such as fine motor skill and planning.
Goal: Maximize basic visual sensory functioning
- Student will comply with necessary accommodations (e.g., patch, glasses) for _____ amount of time with ____ prompts.
Goal: Explore and identify objects in all areas of space (levels-startle, verbal cue, spontaneously)
- Student will scan from left to right in order to find target in _____ area (e.g., tray, room) _____% of the time with _____ cues.
- Student will identify targets in all areas of space to find target in ______ area ______% of the time with ______ cues.
Goal: Recognition of visual stimuli
- Student will identify three-dimensional objects _____% of the time with _____ cues.
- Student will identify photographs _____% of the time with _____ cues.
- Student will identify line drawings _____% of the time with _____ cues.
- Student will perform visual closure by recognizing objects presented partially incompleted or degraded _____% of the time with _____ cues.
Goal: Visual spatial organization
- Student will use visual cues to successfully navigate in _______ environment with _____ cues.
- Student will discriminate features (i.e., size, angles, orientation) and assign meaning to visual stimuli (e.g., graphs, mental puzzles) _______ of the time with ______cues.
- Student will demonstrate the ability to copy a specified figure _____% of the time with _____ cues.
- Student will demonstrate the ability to draw a specified figure without a model ______% of the time with _____ cues.
- Student will demonstrate the ability to replicate a three-dimensional design _____% of the time with _____ cues.
- Student will demonstrate the ability to build a specified three-dimensional design without a model _____% of the time with _____ cues.