Sex-specific activation of cell death signalling pathways in cerebellar granule neurons exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation followed by reoxygenation.

Mark McIntosh,'s picture
PubMed URL:
Hossain MA
Author List: 
Sharma J
Nelluru G
Wilson MA
Johnston MV
Hossain MA
ASN Neuro
PubMed ID: 
Neuronal death pathways following hypoxia-ischaemia are sexually dimorphic, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We examined cell death mechanisms during OGD (oxygen-glucose deprivation) followed by Reox (reoxygenation) in segregated male (XY) and female (XX) mouse primary CGNs (cerebellar granule neurons) that are WT (wild-type) or Parp-1 [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1] KO (knockout). Exposure of CGNs to OGD (1.5 h)/Reox (7 h) caused cell death in XY and XX neurons, but cell death during Reox was greater in XX neurons. ATP levels were significantly lower after OGD/Reox in WT-XX neurons than in XY neurons; this difference was eliminated in Parp-1 KO-XX neurons. AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) was released from mitochondria and translocated to the nucleus by 1 h exclusively in WT-XY neurons. In contrast, there was a release of Cyt C (cytochrome C) from mitochondria in WT-XX and Parp-1 KO neurons of both sexes; delayed activation of caspase 3 was observed in the same three groups. Thus deletion of Parp-1 shunted cell death towards caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. Delayed activation of caspase 8 was also observed in all groups after OGD/Reox, but was much greater in XX neurons, and caspase 8 translocated to the nucleus in XX neurons only. Caspase 8 activation may contribute to increased XX neuronal death during Reox, via caspase 3 activation. Thus, OGD/Reox induces death of XY neurons via a PARP-1-AIF-dependent mechanism, but blockade of PARP-1-AIF pathway shifts neuronal death towards a caspase-dependent mechanism. In XX neurons, OGD/Reox caused prolonged depletion of ATP and delayed activation of caspase 8 and caspase 3, culminating in greater cell death during Reox.
Published Date: 
January, 2011

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