Lithium in Paediatric Patients with Bipolar Disorder: Implications for Selection of Dosage Regimens via Population Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics.

Mark McIntosh,'s picture
PubMed URL:
Kirkpatrick CM
Author List: 
Landersdorfer CB
Findling RL
Frazier JA
Kafantaris V
Kirkpatrick CM
Clin Pharmacokinet
PubMed ID: 
Lithium is a well-established treatment for bipolar I disorder in adults. However, there is a paucity of information on its pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in children and adolescents. We aimed to develop the first lithium dosage regimens based on population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics for paediatric patients.Lithium concentrations, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scores over 24 weeks were available from 61 paediatric patients with bipolar I disorder. The population pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics were co-modelled. Concentrations and clinical effects following several dosage regimens were predicted by Monte Carlo simulations.The pharmacokinetics were well characterised by a two compartment model with linear elimination. Including the effect of total body weight (TBW) or lean body weight (LBW) on clearance and volume of distribution decreased the unexplained inter-individual variability by up to 12 %. The population mean (inter-individual variability) clearance was 1.64 L/h/53 kg LBW(0.75) (19 %) and central volume of distribution 23.6 L/53 kg LBW (6.8 %). The average lithium concentration over a dosing interval required for a 50 % reduction in YMRS was 0.711 mEq/L (59 %). A maintenance dose of 25 mg/kg TBW/day lithium carbonate in two daily doses was predicted to achieve a ≥50 % reduction in YMRS in 74 % of patients, while ~8 % of patients would be expected to have trough concentrations above the nominal safety threshold of 1.4 mEq/L. Therefore, therapeutic drug monitoring will still be required even with these dosing strategies.When accounting for body size, the pharmacokinetic parameters in paediatric patients were within the range of estimates from adults. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling supported development of practical scientifically-based dosage regimens for paediatric patients.
Published Date: 
July, 2016

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