Noninvasive assessment of brain injury in a canine model of hypothermic circulatory arrest using magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Mark McIntosh,'s picture
PubMed URL:
Baumgartner WA
Author List: 
Barreiro CJ
Williams JA
Fitton TP
Lange MS
Blue ME
Kratz L
Barker PB
Degaonkar M
Gott VL
Troncoso JC
Johnston MV
Baumgartner WA
Ann Thorac Surg
PubMed ID: 
Studies have confirmed the neuroprotective effect of diazoxide in canines undergoing hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA). A decreased N-acetyl-asparate:choline (NAA:Cho) ratio is believed to reflect the severity of neurologic injury. We demonstrated that noninvasive measurement of NAA:Cho with magnetic resonance spectroscopy facilitates assessment of neuronal injury after HCA and allows for evaluation of neuroprotective strategies.Canines underwent 2 hours of HCA at 18 degrees C and were observed for 24 hours. Animals were divided into three groups (n = 15 in each group): normal (unoperated), HCA (HCA only), and HCA+diazoxide (pharmacologic treatment before HCA). The NAA:Cho ratios were obtained 24 hours after HCA by spectroscopy. Brains were immediately harvested for fresh tissue NAA quantification by mass spectrometry. Separate cohorts of HCA (n = 16) and HCA+diazoxide (n = 23) animals were kept alive for 72 hours for daily neurologic assessment.Cortical NAA:Cho ratios were significantly decreased in HCA versus normal animals (1.01 +/- 0.29 versus 1.31 +/- 0.23; p = 0.004), consistent with severe neurologic injury. Diazoxide pretreatment limited neurologic injury versus HCA alone, reflected in a preserved NAA:Cho ratio (1.21 +/- 0.27 versus 1.01 +/- 0.29; p = 0.05). Data were substantiated with fresh tissue NAA extraction. A significant decrease in cortical NAA was observed in HCA versus normal (7.07 +/- 1.9 versus 8.54 +/- 2.1 micromol/g; p = 0.05), with maintenance of normal NAA levels after diazoxide pretreatment (9.49 +/- 1.1 versus 7.07 +/- 1.9 micromol/g; p = 0.0002). Clinical neurologic scores were significantly improved in the HCA+diazoxide group versus HCA at all time points.Neurologic injury remains a significant complication of cardiac surgery and is most severe after HCA. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of NAA:Cho ratios offers an early, noninvasive means of potentially evaluating neurologic injury and the effect of neuroprotective agents.
Published Date: 
May, 2006

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