Using frequency-labeled exchange transfer to separate out conventional magnetization transfer effects from exchange transfer effects when detecting ParaCEST agents.

TitleUsing frequency-labeled exchange transfer to separate out conventional magnetization transfer effects from exchange transfer effects when detecting ParaCEST agents.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsLin C-Y, Yadav NN, Friedman JI, Ratnakar J, Sherry DA, van Zijl PCM
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Volume67
Issue4
Pagination906-11
Date Published2012 Apr
Abstract

Paramagnetic chemical exchange saturation transfer agents combine the benefits of a large chemical shift difference and a fast exchange rate for sensitive MRI detection. However, the in vivo detection of these agents is hampered by the need for high B(1) fields to allow sufficiently fast saturation before exchange occurs, thus causing interference of large magnetization transfer effects from semisolid macromolecules. A recently developed approach named frequency-labeled exchange transfer utilizes excitation pulses instead of saturation pulses for detecting the exchanging protons. Using solutions and gel phantoms containing the europium (III) complex of DOTA tetraglycinate (EuDOTA-(gly)(-) (4) ), it is shown that frequency-labeled exchange transfer allows the separation of chemical exchange effects and magnetization transfer (MT) effects in the time domain, therefore allowing the study of the individual resonance of rapidly exchanging water molecules (k(ex) >10(4) s(-1) ) without interference from conventional broad-band MT.

DOI10.1007/s12975-011-0110-4
Alternate JournalMagn Reson Med