Understanding the effect of surface/bulk defects on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2: anatase versus rutile.

TitleUnderstanding the effect of surface/bulk defects on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2: anatase versus rutile.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsYan J, Wu G, Guan N, Li L, Li Z, Cao X
JournalPhysical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP
Volume15
Issue26
Pagination10978-88
Date Published2013 Jul 14
Abstract

The sole effect of surface/bulk defects of TiO2 samples on their photocatalytic activity was investigated. Nano-sized anatase and rutile TiO2 were prepared by hydrothermal method and their surface/bulk defects were adjusted simply by calcination at different temperatures, i.e. 400-700 °C. High temperature calcinations induced the growth of crystalline sizes and a decrease in the surface areas, while the crystalline phase and the exposed facets were kept unchanged during calcination, as indicated by the characterization results from XRD, Raman, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, TEM and UV-Vis spectra. The existence of surface/bulk defects in calcined TiO2 samples was confirmed by photoluminescence and XPS spectra, and the surface/bulk defect ratio was quantitatively analyzed according to positron annihilation results. The photocatalytic activity of calcined TiO2 samples was evaluated in the photocatalytic reforming of methanol and the photocatalytic oxidation of α-phenethyl alcohol. Based on the characterization and catalytic results, a direct correlation between the surface specific photocatalytic activity and the surface/bulk defect density ratio could be drawn for both anatase TiO2 and rutile TiO2. The surface defects of TiO2, i.e. oxygen vacancy clusters, could promote the separation of electron-hole pairs under irradiation, and therefore, enhance the activity during photocatalytic reaction.

DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0065042
Alternate JournalPhys Chem Chem Phys