Triple pathology in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: A case report and review of the literature.

TitleTriple pathology in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: A case report and review of the literature.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsYang K, Su J, Hu Z, Lang R, Sun X, Li X, Wang D, Wei M, Yin J
JournalExperimental and therapeutic medicine
Date Published2013 Oct

The coexistence of three intracranial lesions related to epileptic pathogenesis is known as 'triple pathology' and has rarely been reported. In this study we report a case of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with the coexistence of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and ganglioglioma in the temporal lobe. A 29-year-old male who had experienced recurrent seizures for four years was admitted to hospital. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was conducted and T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence (FLAIR) images revealed a reduced hippocampal volume with an increased FLAIR signal on the right side and a slightly enlarged temporal horn, which are typical imaging findings for HS and FCD. The patient underwent resectioning of the right anterior temporal lobe, hippocampus and amygdala, in addition to the lesion located in the medial temporal lobe. Immunohistochemical analysis of the medial temporal lobe lesion confirmed a ganglioglioma (WHO grade I) in the medial temporal lobe. During the first eight months following surgery, the patient's seizures were controlled with zonisamide and phenytoin. Electroencephalogram (EEG) assessment post-surgery confirmed the absence of epileptic discharges. Based on a literature review and a detailed review of this case, we postulate two possible explanations for the pathogenesis of 'triple pathology': i) 'triple pathology' is a combination of pathological progression and occasionality; and ii) 'triple pathology' lesions have similar pathological origins.

Alternate JournalExp Ther Med