The scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor: c-met pathway in human embryonal central nervous system tumor malignancy.

TitleThe scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor: c-met pathway in human embryonal central nervous system tumor malignancy.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2005
AuthorsLi Y, Lal B, Kwon S, Fan X, Saldanha U, Reznik TE, Kuchner EB, Eberhart C, Laterra J, Abounader R
JournalCancer research
Volume65
Issue20
Pagination9355-62
Date Published2005 Oct 15
Abstract

Embryonal central nervous system (CNS) tumors, which comprise medulloblastoma, are the most common malignant brain tumors in children. The role of the growth factor scatter factor/hepatocyte growth factor (SF/HGF) and its tyrosine kinase receptor c-Met in these tumors has been until now completely unknown. In the present study, we show that human embryonal CNS tumor cell lines and surgical tumor specimens express SF/HGF and c-Met. Furthermore, c-Met mRNA expression levels statistically significantly correlate with poor clinical outcome. Treatment of medulloblastoma cells with SF/HGF activates c-Met and downstream signal transduction as evidenced by c-Met, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt phosphorylation. SF/HGF induces tumor cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, and cell cycle progression beyond the G1-S checkpoint. Using dominant-negative Cdk2 and a degradation stable p27 mutant, we show that cell cycle progression induced by SF/HGF requires Cdk2 function and p27 inhibition. SF/HGF also protects medulloblastoma cells against apoptosis induced by chemotherapy. This cytoprotective effect is associated with reduction of proapoptotic cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase-3 proteins and requires phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity. SF/HGF gene transfer to medulloblastoma cells strongly enhances the in vivo growth of s.c. and intracranial tumor xenografts. SF/HGF-overexpressing medulloblastoma xenografts exhibit increased invasion and morphologic changes that resemble human large cell anaplastic medulloblastoma. This first characterization establishes SF/HGF:c-Met as a new pathway of malignancy with multifunctional effects in human embryonal CNS tumors.

Alternate JournalCancer Res.