News & Updates
Search Research Content
Resource Finder at Kennedy Krieger Institute
A free resource that provides access to information and support for individuals and families living with developmental disabilities.
Posttranslation modification of G protein-coupled receptor in relationship to biased agonism.
|Title||Posttranslation modification of G protein-coupled receptor in relationship to biased agonism.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Zheng H, Loh HH, Law P-Y|
|Journal||Methods in enzymology|
Biased signaling has been reported with a series of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including β(2)-adrenergic receptor and μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1). The concept of biased signaling suggests that the agonists of one particular receptor may activate the downstream signaling pathways with different efficacies. Thus in an extreme case, agonists might activate different sets of signaling pathways, which provide a new route to develop drugs with increased efficacies and decreased side effects. Among the many factors, posttranslation modifications of receptor proteins have major roles in influencing the biased signaling. Take OPRM1, for example, the phosphorylation and palmitoylation of receptor can regulate the biased signaling induced by agonists. Thus, by modulating these posttranslation modifications, the biased signaling of GPCRs can be regulated. In addition, although it is not considered as posttranslation modification normally, the distribution of GPCRs on cell membrane, especially the distribution between lipid-raft and non-raft microdomains, also contributes to the biased signaling. Thus in this chapter, we described the methods used in our laboratory to study receptor phosphorylation, receptor palmitoylation, and membrane distribution of receptor by using OPRM1 as a model. A functional model was also provided on these posttranslational modifications at the last section of this chapter.
|Alternate Journal||Meth. Enzymol.|