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Oxygenation and hematocrit dependence of transverse relaxation rates of blood at 3T.
|Title||Oxygenation and hematocrit dependence of transverse relaxation rates of blood at 3T.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2007|
|Authors||Zhao JM, Clingman CS, Närväinen JM, Kauppinen RA, van Zijl PCM|
|Journal||Magnetic resonance in medicine : official journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine / Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine|
|Date Published||2007 Sep|
Knowledge of the transverse relaxation rates R2 and R2* of blood is relevant for quantitative assessment of functional MRI (fMRI) results, including calibration of blood oxygenation and measurement of tissue oxygen extraction fractions (OEFs). In a temperature controlled circulation system, these rates were measured for blood in vitro at 3T under conditions akin to the physiological state. Single spin echo (SE) and gradient echo (GRE) sequences were used to determine R2 and R2*, respectively. Both rates varied quadratically with deoxygenation, and changes in R2* were found to be due predominantly to changes in R2. These data were used to estimate intravascular blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contributions during visual activation. Due to the large R2* in venous blood, intravascular SE BOLD signal changes were larger than GRE effects at echo times above 30 ms. When including extravascular effects to estimate the total BOLD effect, GRE BOLD dominated due to the large tissue volume fraction.
|Alternate Journal||Magn Reson Med|