An online semi-supervised brain-computer interface.

TitleAn online semi-supervised brain-computer interface.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsGu Z, Yu Z, Shen Z, Li Y
JournalIEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering
Volume60
Issue9
Pagination2614-23
Date Published2013 Sep
Abstract

Practical brain-computer interface (BCI) systems should require only low training effort for the user, and the algorithms used to classify the intent of the user should be computationally efficient. However, due to inter- and intra-subject variations in EEG signal, intermittent training/calibration is often unavoidable. In this paper, we present an online semi-supervised P300 BCI speller system. After a short initial training (around or less than 1 min in our experiments), the system is switched to a mode where the user can input characters through selective attention. In this mode, a self-training least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) classifier is gradually enhanced in back end with the unlabeled EEG data collected online after every character input. In this way, the classifier is gradually enhanced. Even though the user may experience some errors in input at the beginning due to the small initial training dataset, the accuracy approaches that of fully supervised method in a few minutes. The algorithm based on LS-SVM and its sequential update has low computational complexity; thus, it is suitable for online applications. The effectiveness of the algorithm has been validated through data analysis on BCI Competition III dataset II (P300 speller BCI data). The performance of the online system was evaluated through experimental results on eight healthy subjects, where all of them achieved the spelling accuracy of 85 % or above within an average online semi-supervised learning time of around 3 min.

DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0063013
Alternate JournalIEEE Trans Biomed Eng