M180 Amelogenin Processed by MMP20 is Sufficient for Decussating Murine Enamel.

TitleM180 Amelogenin Processed by MMP20 is Sufficient for Decussating Murine Enamel.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsPugach MK, Suggs C, Li Y, Wright JT, Kulkarni AB, Bartlett JD, Gibson CW
JournalJournal of dental research
Date Published2013 Dec

Amelogenin (AMELX) and matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) are essential for proper enamel development. Amelx and Mmp20 mutations cause amelogenesis imperfecta. MMP20, a protease secreted by ameloblasts, is responsible for processing enamel proteins, including AMELX, during the secretory stage of enamel formation. Of at least 16 different amelogenin splice products, the most abundant isoform found in murine ameloblasts and developing enamel is the M180 protein. To understand the role of MMP20 processing of M180 AMELX, we generated AmelxKO/Mmp20KO (DKO) mice with an amelogenin (M180Tg) transgene. We analyzed the enamel phenotype by SEM to determine enamel structure and thickness, µCT, and by nanoindentation to quantify enamel mechanical properties. M180Tg/DKO mouse enamel had 37% of the hardness of M180Tg/AmelxKO teeth and demonstrated a complete lack of normal prismatic architecture. Although molar enamel of M180Tg/AmelxKO mice was thinner than WT, it had similar mechanical properties and decussating enamel prisms, which were abolished by the loss of MMP20 in the M180Tg/DKO mice. Retention of the C-terminus or complete lack of this domain is unable to rescue amelogenin null enamel. We conclude that among amelogenins, M180 alone is sufficient for normal enamel mechanical properties and prism patterns, but that additional amelogenin splice products are required to restore enamel thickness.

Alternate JournalJ. Dent. Res.