Identification of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) as an instructive factor for human epidermal Langerhans cell differentiation.

TitleIdentification of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) as an instructive factor for human epidermal Langerhans cell differentiation.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsYasmin N, Bauer T, Modak M, Wagner K, Schuster C, Köffel R, Seyerl M, Stöckl J, Elbe-Bürger A, Graf D, Strobl H
JournalThe Journal of experimental medicine
Volume210
Issue12
Pagination2597-610
Date Published2013 Nov 18
Abstract

Human Langerhans cell (LC) precursors populate the epidermis early during prenatal development and thereafter undergo massive proliferation. The prototypic antiproliferative cytokine TGF-β1 is required for LC differentiation from human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells and blood monocytes in vitro. Similarly, TGF-β1 deficiency results in LC loss in vivo. However, immunohistology studies revealed that human LC niches in early prenatal epidermis and adult basal (germinal) keratinocyte layers lack detectable TGF-β1. Here we demonstrated that these LC niches express high levels of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) and that Bmp7-deficient mice exhibit substantially diminished LC numbers, with the remaining cells appearing less dendritic. BMP7 induces LC differentiation and proliferation by activating the BMP type-I receptor ALK3 in the absence of canonical TGF-β1-ALK5 signaling. Conversely, TGF-β1-induced in vitro LC differentiation is mediated via ALK3; however, co-induction of ALK5 diminished TGF-β1-driven LC generation. Therefore, selective ALK3 signaling by BMP7 promotes high LC yields. Within epidermis, BMP7 shows an inverse expression pattern relative to TGF-β1, the latter induced in suprabasal layers and up-regulated in outer layers. We observed that TGF-β1 inhibits microbial activation of BMP7-generated LCs. Therefore, TGF-β1 in suprabasal/outer epidermal layers might inhibit LC activation, resulting in LC network maintenance.

DOI10.3980/j.issn.2222-3959.2013.05.16
Alternate JournalJ. Exp. Med.