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Ghrelin-immunopositive hypothalamic neurons tie the circadian clock and visual system to the lateral hypothalamic arousal center.
|Title||Ghrelin-immunopositive hypothalamic neurons tie the circadian clock and visual system to the lateral hypothalamic arousal center.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2012|
|Authors||Horvath TL, Abizaid A, Dietrich MO, Li Y, Takahashi JS, Bass J|
Ghrelin, a circulating gut-hormone, has emerged as an important regulator of growth hormone release and appetite. Ghrelin-immunopositive neurons have also been identified in the hypothalamus with a unique anatomical distribution. Here, we report that ghrelin-labeled neurons receive direct synaptic input from the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the central circadian timekeeper of the brain, and lateral geniculate nucleus, a visual center, and project synaptically to the lateral hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin system, a region of the brain critical for arousal. Hypothalamic ghrelin mRNA oscillates in a circadian pattern peaking in the dark phase prior to the switch from arousal to sleep. Ghrelin inhibits the electrophysiological activity of identified orexin/hypocretin neurons in hypothalamic slices. These observations indicate that the hypothalamic neurons identified by ghrelin immunolabeling may be a key mediator of circadian and visual cues for the hypothalamic arousal system.
|Alternate Journal||Mol Metab|