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Fate of estrogen conjugate 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate in dairy wastewater: comparison of aerobic and anaerobic degradation and metabolite formation.
|Title||Fate of estrogen conjugate 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate in dairy wastewater: comparison of aerobic and anaerobic degradation and metabolite formation.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Zheng W, Zou Y, Li X, Machesky ML|
|Journal||Journal of hazardous materials|
|Date Published||2013 Aug 15|
Irrigation with concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) wastewater on croplands has been identified as a major source discharging steroid hormones into the environment. To assess the potential risks on this irrigation practice, the degradation kinetics and mechanisms of 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate were systematically investigated in aqueous solutions blended with dairy wastewater. Dissipation of the conjugated estrogen was dominated by biodegradation under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The half-lives for the biodegradation of 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions from 15 to 45°C varied from 1.70 to 415 d and 22.5 to 724 d, respectively. Under the same incubation conditions, anaerobic degradation rates of 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate were significantly less than aerobic degradation rates, suggesting that this hormone contaminant may accumulate in anaerobic or anoxic environments. Three degradation products were characterized under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions at 25°C, with estrone-3-sulfate and 17α-estradiol identified as primary metabolites and estrone identified as a secondary metabolite. However, the major degradation mechanisms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were distinctly different. For aerobic degradation, oxidation at position C17 of the 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate ring was a major degradation mechanism. In contrast, deconjugation of the 17α-estradiol-3-sulfate thio-ester bond at position C3 was a major process initiating degradation under anaerobic conditions.
|Alternate Journal||J. Hazard. Mater.|