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Downregulation of multiple CDK inhibitor ICK/KRP genes upregulates the E2F pathway and increases cell proliferation, and organ and seed sizes in Arabidopsis.
|Title||Downregulation of multiple CDK inhibitor ICK/KRP genes upregulates the E2F pathway and increases cell proliferation, and organ and seed sizes in Arabidopsis.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2013|
|Authors||Cheng Y, Cao L, Wang S, Li Y, Shi X, Liu H, Li L, Zhang Z, Fowke LC, Wang H, Zhou Y|
|Journal||The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology|
|Date Published||2013 Aug|
The ICK/KRP cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors are important plant cell cycle factors sharing only limited similarity with the metazoan CIP/KIP family of CDK inhibitors. Little is known about the specific functions of different ICK/KRP genes in planta. In this study, we created double and multiple mutants from five single Arabidopsis ICK/KRP T-DNA mutants, and used a set of 20 lines for the functional investigation of the important gene family. There were gradual increases in CDK activity from single to multiple mutants, indicating that ICK/KRPs act as CDK inhibitors under normal physiological conditions in plants. Whereas lower-order mutants showed no morphological phenotypes, the ick1 ick2 ick6 ick7 and ick1 ick2 ick5 ick6 ick7 mutants had a slightly altered leaf shape. The quintuple mutant had larger cotyledons, leaves, petals and seeds than the wild-type control. At the cellular level, the ICK/KRP mutants had more but smaller cells in all the organs examined. These phenotypic effects became more apparent as more ICK/KRPs were downregulated, suggesting that to a large extent ICK/KRPs function in plants redundantly in a dosage-dependent manner. Analyses also revealed increased expression of E2F-dependent genes, and elevated RBR1 as well as an increased level of phospho-RBB1 protein in the quintuple mutant. Thus, downregulation of multiple ICK/KRP genes increases CDK activity, upregulates the E2F pathway and stimulates cell proliferation, resulting in increased cell numbers, and larger organs and seeds.
|Alternate Journal||Plant J.|