Downregulation of multiple CDK inhibitor ICK/KRP genes upregulates the E2F pathway and increases cell proliferation, and organ and seed sizes in Arabidopsis.

TitleDownregulation of multiple CDK inhibitor ICK/KRP genes upregulates the E2F pathway and increases cell proliferation, and organ and seed sizes in Arabidopsis.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsCheng Y, Cao L, Wang S, Li Y, Shi X, Liu H, Li L, Zhang Z, Fowke LC, Wang H, Zhou Y
JournalThe Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology
Volume75
Issue4
Pagination642-55
Date Published2013 Aug
Abstract

The ICK/KRP cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors are important plant cell cycle factors sharing only limited similarity with the metazoan CIP/KIP family of CDK inhibitors. Little is known about the specific functions of different ICK/KRP genes in planta. In this study, we created double and multiple mutants from five single Arabidopsis ICK/KRP T-DNA mutants, and used a set of 20 lines for the functional investigation of the important gene family. There were gradual increases in CDK activity from single to multiple mutants, indicating that ICK/KRPs act as CDK inhibitors under normal physiological conditions in plants. Whereas lower-order mutants showed no morphological phenotypes, the ick1 ick2 ick6 ick7 and ick1 ick2 ick5 ick6 ick7 mutants had a slightly altered leaf shape. The quintuple mutant had larger cotyledons, leaves, petals and seeds than the wild-type control. At the cellular level, the ICK/KRP mutants had more but smaller cells in all the organs examined. These phenotypic effects became more apparent as more ICK/KRPs were downregulated, suggesting that to a large extent ICK/KRPs function in plants redundantly in a dosage-dependent manner. Analyses also revealed increased expression of E2F-dependent genes, and elevated RBR1 as well as an increased level of phospho-RBB1 protein in the quintuple mutant. Thus, downregulation of multiple ICK/KRP genes increases CDK activity, upregulates the E2F pathway and stimulates cell proliferation, resulting in increased cell numbers, and larger organs and seeds.

DOI10.1111/tpj.12228
Alternate JournalPlant J.