CRM1 Inhibition Sensitizes Drug Resistant Human Myeloma Cells to Topoisomerase II and Proteasome Inhibitors both In Vitro and Ex Vivo.

TitleCRM1 Inhibition Sensitizes Drug Resistant Human Myeloma Cells to Topoisomerase II and Proteasome Inhibitors both In Vitro and Ex Vivo.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsTurner JG, Dawson J, Emmons MF, Cubitt CL, Kauffman M, Shacham S, Hazlehurst LA, Sullivan DM
JournalJournal of Cancer
Volume4
Issue8
Pagination614-25
Date Published2013
Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable disease despite improved treatments, including lenalidomide/pomalidomide and bortezomib/carfilzomib based therapies and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue. New drug targets are needed to further improve treatment outcomes. Nuclear export of macromolecules is misregulated in many cancers, including in hematological malignancies such as MM. CRM1 (chromosome maintenance protein-1) is a ubiquitous protein that exports large proteins (>40 kDa) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. We found that small-molecule Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export (SINE) prevent CRM1-mediated export of p53 and topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα). SINE's CRM1-inhibiting activity was verified by nuclear-cytoplasmic fractionation and immunocytochemical staining of the CRM1 cargoes p53 and topo IIα in MM cells. We found that SINE molecules reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis when used as both single agents in the sub-micromolar range and when combined with doxorubicin, bortezomib, or carfilzomib but not lenalidomide, melphalan, or dexamethasone. In addition, CRM1 inhibition sensitized MM cell lines and patient myeloma cells to doxorubicin, bortezomib, and carfilzomib but did not affect peripheral blood mononuclear or non-myeloma bone marrow mononuclear cells as shown by cell viability and apoptosis assay. Drug resistance induced by co-culture of myeloma cells with bone marrow stroma cells was circumvented by the addition of SINE molecules. These results support the continued development of SINE for patients with MM.

DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0076966
Alternate JournalJ Cancer